MICRESS® related publications

2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,

2009, 2008, 2007, 2006,  2005,   2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000,

1999, 1998, 1997, 1996 




Ming Wei, Lijun Zhang, Mingjun Yang, Kai Li, Shuhong Liu, Pizhi Zhao and Yong Du:

Phase-field simulation of the solidified microstructure in a new commercial 6××× aluminum alloy ingot supported by experimental measurements

International Journal of Materials Research https://doi.org/10.3139/146.111584


J.Eiken and B.Böttger
3D phase-field simulations of graphite growth in ductile cast iron considering interaction between local expansion and microsegregation
presented  at the TMS Annual Meeting 2017 San Diego, DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.21890.48329 (open in new frame)


Dan Wang, Kota Kadoi and Kenji Shinozaki
Prediction of Residual Liquid Distribution of Austenitic Stainless Steel during Laser Beam Welding Using Multi-Phase Field Modeling
ISIJ International, Advance Publication by J-STAGE, DOI: 10.2355/isijinternational.ISIJINT-2016-484


David Reith, Mikael Christensen, Walter Wolf, Erich Wimmer, Georg J. Schmitz:
Towards Bridging the Data Exchange Gap Between Atomistic Simulation and Larger Scale Models
Proceedings of the 4th World Congress on Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME 2017)
Editors: Paul Mason, Charles R. Fisher, Ryan Glamm, Michele V. Manuel, Georg J. Schmitz, Amarendra K. Singh, Alejandro Strachan
ISBN: 978-3-319-57863-7 (Print) 978-3-319-57864-4 (Online)


G.J.Schmitz: A Flowchart Scheme for Information Retrieval in ICME Settings
Proceedings of the 4th World Congress on Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME 2017)
Editors: Paul Mason, Charles R. Fisher, Ryan Glamm, Michele V. Manuel, Georg J. Schmitz, Amarendra K. Singh, Alejandro Strachan
ISBN: 978-3-319-57863-7 (Print) 978-3-319-57864-4 (Online)


M J Deepu, H Farivar, U Prahl and G Phanikumar
Microstructure based simulations for prediction of flow curves and selection of process parameters for inter-critical annealing in DP steel
Materials Science and Engineering 192  (2017) 012010   doi:10.1088/1757-899X/192/1/012010


G. J. Schmitz, H. Farivar, and U. Prahl
Scenario for Data Exchange at the Microstructure Scale
Integr Mater Manuf Innov.
(2017) DOI 10.1007/s40192-017-0092-5


Manja Krüger, Georg Hasemann, Omid Kazemi, Thorsten Halle
Microstructure Evolution of a Directionally Solidified Ternary Eutectic Mo-Si-B Alloy
Materials Science Forum Vol. 879 (2017)1226-1232 DoI:





G.J. Schmitz (作者), U.Prahl (作者)  集成计算材料工程----块化仿真平台的 概念和 ISBN 9787118108415


Alexandre Viardin, Miha Založnik, Youssef Souhar, Markus Apel, Hervé Combeau
Mesoscopic modeling of spacing and grain selection in columnar dendritic solidification: Envelope versus phase-field model
Acta Materialia 122, (1 January 2017), Pages 386–399    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2016.10.004


Wang, Kai, Ming Wei, and Lijun Zhang, ‘Anomalous Halo Formation in an Arc-Melted ScNi-Sc2Ni Off-Eutectic Binary Alloy’, Materials, 9 (2016), 584 http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma9070584


Prosenjit Das, Pradip Dutta
Phase field modelling of microstructure evolution and ripening driven grain growth during cooling slope processing of A356 Al alloy
Computational Materials Science Volume 125, December 2016, Pages 8–19


Georg J. Schmitz, Bernd Böttger, Markus Apel, Janin Eiken, Gottfried Laschet, Ralph Altenfeld, Ralf Berger, Guillaume Boussinot & Alexandre Viardin
Towards a metadata scheme for the description of materials – the description of microstructures,
Science and Technology of Advanced Materials 17:1(2016) 410-430, DOI:10.1080/14686996.2016.1194166


O Kazemi, G Hasemann, M Krüger and T Halle
Phase field simulation of a directional solidification of a ternary eutectic Mo-Si-B Alloy
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 118 (2016) 012028 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/118/1/012028


M.G. Mecozzi, J. Eiken, M.J. Santofimia, J. Sietsma
Phase field modelling of microstructural evolution during the quenching and partitioning treatment in low-alloy steels
Computational Materials Science 112 A (2016) 245–256 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.commatsci.2015.10.048


M Zaloznik, A Viardin, Y Souhar, H Combeau, M Apel
Mesoscopic modelling of columnar solidification
Materials Science and Engineering 117 (2016) 012013 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/117/1/012013


A Viardin, R Berger, L Sturz, M Apel and U Hecht
Phase-field modelling of
β(Ti) solidification in Ti-45at.%Al : columnar dendrite growth at various gravity levels
Materials Science and Engineering 117 (2016) 012007 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/117/1/012007


G J Schmitz, B Böttger and M Apel
On the role of solidification modelling in Integrated Computational Materials Engineering “ICME”
Materials Science and Engineering 117 (2016) 012041 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/117/1/012041


Maalekian, Mehran, Hamid Azizi-Alizamini, and Matthias Militzer, ‘Phase Field Modeling of Microstructure Banding in Steels’,
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 47 (2016), 608–22 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11661-015-3225-5


G.J.Schmitz and U.Prahl (eds): Handbook of Software Solutions for ICME, Wiley VCH, Weinheim (2016), ISBN 978-3-527-33902-0


K. Wang, M. Wei, L. Zhang, and Y. Du
Morphologies of Primary Silicon in Hypereutectic Al-Si Alloys: Phase-Field Simulation Supported by Key Experiments
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A 47A  (2016)1510  DOI: 10.1007/s11661-016-3358-1


B. Böttger, C. Haberstroh, N. Giesselmann
Cross-Permeability of the Semisolid Region in Directional Solidification: A Combined Phase-Field and Lattice-Boltzmann Simulation Approach
JOMM 68 1 (2016) 27-36  DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11837-015-1690-3


C. Hao, B. Zhu, and M. Militzer, ‘Phase Field Modeling of Cyclic Austenite-Ferrite Transformations in Fe-C-Mn Alloys’, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 47 (2016), 3873–81 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11661-016-3595-3


G. J. Schmitz, A. Engstrom, R. Bernhardt, U. Prahl, L. Adam, J. Seyfarth, M. Apel, C. Agelet de Saracibar, P. Korzhavyi, J. Ågren, and B. Patzak:
Software Solutions for ICME; JOMM 68 1 (2016) 70-76 DOI: 10.1007/s11837- 015-1718-8


Ma, Ping-ping, Ruijie Zhang, Xue Jiang, Hai-qing Yin, Guo-quan Liu, and Xuan-hui Qu, ‘Prediction of the Equivalent Elastic Modulus of Mush Zone during Solidification Process Coupled with Phase Field Simulations’, Computational Materials Science, 123 (2016), 252–55 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.commatsci.2016.07.003


G. J. Schmitz:
Microstructure modeling in integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) settings: Can HDF5 provide the basis for an emerging standard for describing microstructures?
JOMM 68 1 (2016) 77-83 JOM DOI: 10.1007/s11837- 015-1748-2


G.J.Schmitz: ICME- Bridging Interfaces
JOMM 68 1 (2016) 25-26





Zhu, Ben-qiang, and Matthias Militzer, ‘Phase-Field Modeling for Intercritical Annealing of a Dual-Phase Steel’, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 46 (2015), 1073–84 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11661-014-2698-y


Založnik, M., Alexandre Viardin, Y. Souhar, H. Combeau, and Markus Apel, ‘Mesoscopic Modeling of Columnar Solidification and Comparisons with Phase-Field Simulations’, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 84 (2015), 12074 http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/84/1/012074


M.G. Mecozzi, J. Eiken, M.J. Santofimia, J. Sietsma
Phase field modelling of microstructural evolution during the quenching and partitioning treatment in low-alloy steels
Computational Materials Science 112(2016)245-256 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.commatsci.2015.10.048


B. Böttger, M. Apel, B.Laux, S. Piegert
Detached Melt Nucleation during Diffusion Brazing of a Technical Ni-based Superalloy: A Phase-Field Study
2015 IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 84 012031, http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/84/1/012031


B. Böttger, J. Eiken, M. Apel, "Multi-Ternary Extrapolation Scheme for Efficient Coupling of Thermodynamic Data to a Multi-Phase-Field Model",

Computational Materials Science, Volume 108, Part B, October 2015, Pages 283–292


Hara, T., Y. Kanegae, and T. Tonogi, ‘Solidification Simulation of Copper-Iron Alloy for Lead Frame by Phase-Field Method’, in Recent Advances in Structural Integrity Analysis - Proceedings of the International Congress (APCF/SIF-2014), ed. by Lin Ye (Elsevier Science, 2015), p. 350



Ta, Na, Li-jun Zhang, Ying Tang, Wei-min Chen, and Yong Du, ‘Effect of Temperature Gradient on Microstructure Evolution in Ni–Al–Cr Bond Coat/substrate Systems: A Phase-Field Study’, Surface and Coatings Technology, 261 (2015), 364–74 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2014.10.061


Song, Wen-wen, Wolfgang Bleck, and Ulrich Prahl, ‘ICME Towards Improved Understanding of Bainite in 100CR6’, in Proceedings of the 3rd World Congress on Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2015), pp. 39–46 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781119139508.ch5


Lentz, Jonathan, Arne Röttger, and Werner Theisen, ‘Solidification and Phase Formation of Alloys in the Hypoeutectic Region of the Fe–C–B System’, Acta Materialia, 99 (2015), 119–29 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2015.07.037


Mehran Maalekian, Hamid Azizi-Alizamini, and Matthias Militzer

Phase Field Modeling of Microstructure Banding in Steels

Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A  (2015)  DOI: 10.1007/s11661-015-3225-5


Fukumoto, Shigeo, Yuuji Iwasaki, Masatake Hojo, and Hiroshige Inoue, ‘Estimation of Phase Transformation Behaviour and High-Temperature Properties in SUS410 Using Visualization Techniques’, Welding International, 29 (2015), 754–61 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09507116.2014.921076


E. M. van der Aa, M. Amirthalingam, J. Winter, D. N. Hanlon, M.J.M. Hermans,M. Rijnders, and I.M. Richardson:

Improved resistance spot weldability of 3rd generation AHSS for automotive applications

Keynote presentation at the 11th International Seminar on Numerical Analysis of Weldability,  27-30 September 2015 Graz - Seggau – Austria

Paper awarded with the “IIW Kenneth Easterling Best Paper Award 2015


Claas Hüter, Mingxuan Lin, Diego Schicchi, Martin Hunkel, Ulrich Prahl,and Robert Spatschek

A multiscale perspective on the kinetics of solid state transformations with application to bainite formation

AIMS Materials Science, 2(4): 319–345.

DOI: 10.3934/matersci.2015.4.319


R. Rettig, N. C. Ritter, F. Müller, M.M. Franke, and R. F. Singer

Optimization of the Homogenization Heat Treatment of Nickel-Based Superalloys Based on Phase-Field Simulations: Numerical Methods and Experimental Validation



Na Ta, Lijun Zhang, Ying Tang, Weimin Chen, Yong Du

Effect of temperature gradient on microstructure evolution in Ni–Al–Cr bond coat/substrate systems: A phase-field study

Surface & Coatings Technology 261 (2015) 364–374


J.Eiken and M. Apel, ‘Eutectic Morphology Evolution and Sr-Modification in Al-Si Based Alloys Studied by 3D Phase-Field Simulation Coupled to Calphad Data’, IOP Conference Series:

Materials Science and Engineering, 84 (2015), 12084 http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/84/1/012084


M. Goune, F. Danoix, J. Agren, Y. Brechet, C.R. Hutchinson, M. Militzer, G. Purdy,S. van der Zwaag, H. Zurob

Overview of the current issues in austenite to ferrite transformation and the role of migrating interfaces therein for low alloyed steels

Materials Science and Engineering R 92 (2015) 1–38



Phase-Field Simulation of Microstructure Evolution in Industrial A2214 Alloy During Solidification

Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A Vol. 46A (2015) 3182 DOI: 10.1007/s11661-015-2911-7


Murugaiyan Amirthalingam, E. M. van der Aa, C. Kwakernaak, M. J. M. Hermans, I. M. Richardson

Elemental segregation during resistance spot welding of boron containing advanced high strength steels

Welding in the World,  September 2015, Volume 59, Issue 5, pp 743-755


G.J. Schmitz, B. Böttger and M. Apel:

“Microstructure modelling in ICME settings”

in Proceedings of the 3rd World Congress on ICME (Eds W.Poole, S.Christensen, S.Kalidindi, A.Luo, J.Madison, D.Raabe, X.Sun)

Wiley TMS (2015) p165-172 (ISBN 978-1-119-13949-2)


Janin Eiken, Markus Apel, Song-Mao Liang, Rainer Schmid-Fetzer

Impact of P and Sr on solidification sequence and morphology of hypoeutectic Al–Si alloys: Combined thermodynamic computation and phase-field simulation

Acta Materialia 98 (2015)152–163



Phase-Field Simulation of Microstructure Evolutionin Industrial A2214 Alloy During Solidification

METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS 46A (2015) 3182 DOI: 10.1007/s11661-015-2911-7


Murugaiyan Amirthalingam; E. M. van der Aa; C. Kwakernaak; M. J. M. Hermans; I. M. Richardson

Elemental segregation during resistance spot welding of boron containing advanced high strength steels

Weld World (2015) 59:743–755 DOI 10.1007/s40194-015-0250-3


Jonathan Lentz, Arne Röttger, Werner Theisen

Solidification and phase formation of alloys in the hypoeutectic region of the Fe–C–B system

Acta Materialia 99 (2015) 119–129 DOI: 10.1016/j.actamat.2015.07.037





O. Güvenç, M. Bambach, and G. Hirt

Coupling of Crystal Plasticity Finite Element and Phase Field Methods for the Prediction of SRX Kinetics after Hot Working

steel research int. 85 (2014) No. 6 DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300191


M. Apel, J. Eiken and U. Hecht 

Phase field models for heterogeneous nucleation: Application to inoculation in alpha-solidifying Ti-Al-B alloys

European Physical Journal Special Topics 223 3 (2014) 545


M. M. Franke, R. F. Singer and I. Steinbach

Tertiary dendritic instability in late stage solidification of Ni-based superalloys

Modelling Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 22 (2014) 025026


M. Apel, G. Laschet, B. Böttger and R. Berger:

Phase Field Modeling of Microstructure Formation, DSC Curves, and Thermal Expansion for Ag-Cu Brazing Fillers Under Reactive Air Brazing Conditions

Advanced Engineering Materials (2014) DOI: 10.1002/adem.201400101


R. Berger, M. Apel and B. Böttger:

Phase Field Modeling Applied to Reactive Air Brazing: Investigating Reaction Kinetics with Focus on Oxygen


Advanced Engineering Materials (2014) DOI: 10.1002/adem.201400103


G. J. Schmitz:

„Von Massalski nach MICRESS® - Gefügesimulationen in technischen Werkstoffen“

in: J.Hildebrand, T.Loohse, J. Sakkiettibutra and M.Brand (eds):

„Simulationsforum 2013 Schweisstechnik und Wärmebehandlung“

ISBN 978-3-00-045902-3 (2014) pp. 1-11


S.Niknafs and R. Dippenaar

Experimentally-aided Simulation of Directional Solidification of Steel

ISIJ International, Vol. 54 (2014), No. 3, pp. 526–532


Na Ta, Lijun Zhang, and Yong Du

Design of the Precipitation Process for Ni-Al Alloys with Optimal Mechanical Properties: A Phase-Field Study

Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A 45 4 (2014)1787   DOI: 10.1007/s11661-014-2192-6





Wei-hua SUN, Li-jun ZHANG, Ming WEI, Yong DU, Bai-yun HUANG

Effect of liquid diffusion coefficients on microstructure evolution during solidification of Al356.1 alloy

Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 23(2013) 3722−3728


A.Carré, B.Böttger, M.Apel

Implementation of an antitrapping current for a multicomponent multiphase-field ansatz

Journal of Crystal Growth 380(2013)5–13


A. Ramazani, P.T. PinardS. Richter, A. SchwedtU. Prahl:

Characterisation of microstructure and modelling of flow behaviour of bainite-aided dual-phase steel

Computational Materials Science 68 (2013) available online june 19th 2013:


A. Ramazani, Y. Li, K. Mukherjee, U. Prahl, W. Bleck, A. Abdurakhmanov, M. Schleser, U. Reisgen

Microstructure evolution simulation in hot rolled DP600 steel during gas metal arc welding

Computational Materials Science 68 (2013) 107–116


B. Böttger, M. Apel, B. Santillana, and D.G. Eskin:

Relationship Between Solidification Microstructure and Hot Cracking Susceptibility for Continuous Casting of Low-Carbon and High-Strength Low-Alloyed Steels: A Phase-Field Study

Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A 44 5 (2013) 3765. DOI: 10.1007/s11661-013-1732-9


G.J. Schmitz, B. Zhou, B. Böttger, J. Villain and S. Klima
Phase-field modeling and experimental observations of microstructures in solidifying Sn-Ag-Cu solders
Journal of Electronic Materials 42 8 (2013)2658

B. Böttger, G. J. Schmitz, F-J. Wahlers, J. Klöwer, J. Tewes, B. Gehrmann

New Freckle Criterion for Technical Remelting Processes

High Temperatures-High Pressures 42 2 (2013) 115-136


G. Laschet, P.Fayek, T.Henke , H.Quade, U.Prahl

Derivation of anisotropic flow curves of ferrite–pearlite pipeline steel via a two-level homogenisation scheme

Materials Science & Engineering A 566 (2013) 143–156


A. Ramazani, Y. Li, K. Mukherjee, U. Prahl, W. Bleck, A. Abdurakhmanov, M. Schleser, U. Reisgen

Microstructure evolution simulation in hot rolled DP600 steel during gas metal arc welding

Computational Materials Science, Volume 68, February 2013, Pages 107–116





I. Lopez-Galilea, S. Huth, S. G. Fries, N. Warnken, I. Steinbach, and W.Theisen:

Microsegregation and Secondary Phase Formation During Directional Solidification of the Single-Crystal Ni-Based Superalloy LEK94



M. Tolui, M. Militzer

Phase Field Modelling of Microstructure Evolution in the HAZ of X80 Linepipe Steel

Proceedings of the 2012 9th International Pipeline Conference IPC2012 September 24-28, 2012, Calgary, Alberta, Canada



B. Böttger, G.J. Schmitz, and B. Santillana

Multi-Phase-field modeling of solidification in technical steel grades

Trans Indian Inst Met 65 (6) (2012) 613–615 DOI: 10.1007/s12666-012-0169-y


J. Rudnizki, U. Prahl and W. Bleck

Phase-field modelling of microstructure evolution during processing of cold-rolled dual phase steels

Integrating Materials and Manufacturing Innovation 2012, 1:3 doi:10.1186/2193-9772-1-3


I. Lopez-Galilea, S. Huth, S.G. Fries, N. Warnken, I. Steinbach and W. Theisen

Microsegregation and Secondary Phase Formation During Directional Solidification of the Single-Crystal Ni-Based Superalloy LEK94



J. Lacaze, J. Eiken, A. Hazotte

Resampling technique applied to statistics of microsegregation characterization

Materials Science and Engineering 33 (2012) 012062



Numerical solution of the phase-field equation with minimized discretization error

IOP Conference Series - Materials Science and Engineering 33 (2012) 012105


B Böttger, M Apel, B Santillana and D G Eskin

Phase-field modelling of microstructure formation during the solidification of continuously cast low carbon and HSLA steels

IOP Conference Series - Materials Science and Engineering 33 (2012) 012107


G.J.Schmitz and U.Prahl (eds):

Integrative Computational Materials Engineering- Concepts and applications of a modular simulation platform

Wiley VCH Verlag Weinheim, ISBN  978-3-527-33081-2 (2012)


Weihua Sun, Senlin Cui. Lijun Zhang,Yong Du, Baiyun Huang

Phase-field Simulation of Microstructural Evolution of gamma

Precipitate in gamma-prime Matrix in Binary Ni-Al Alloys

Procedia Engineering 36 ( 2012 ) 200 – 206


Janin Eiken:

The Finite Phase-Field Method - A Numerical Diffuse Interface Approach for Microstructure Simulation with Minimized Discretization Error,

MRS Proceedings 2012 1369 : mrss11-1369-xx05-05 DOI: 10.1557/opl.2012.510


Y. Takahama, M.J. Santofimia, M.G. Mecozzi, L. Zhao, J. Sietsma

Phase field simulation of the carbon redistribution during the

quenching and partitioning process in a low-carbon steel

Acta Materialia (2012) in press


Yong Du, LiJun Zhang, SenLin Cui, DongDong Zhao, DanDan Liu,

WeiBin Zhang , WeiHua Sun and  WanQi Jie

Atomic mobilities and diffusivities in Al alloys

Science China 55  2 (2012) 306–328 doi: 10.1007/s11431-011-4692-6


Xiao, NaMin, Chen Yun, Li DianZhong and Li YiYi

Progress in mesoscopic modeling of microstructure evolution in steels

Science China 55  2 (2012) 341–356 doi: 10.1007/s11431-011-4699-z


Galina Lasko, Markus Apel, Antoine Carré, Ulrich Weber and Siegfried Schmauder
Effect of Microstructure and Hydrogen Pores on the Mechanical Behavior of an Al7%Si0.3%Mg Alloy Studied bya Combined Phase-Field and Micromechanical Approach
Advanced Engineering Materials 13 (2012)1   DOI: 10.1002/adem.201100188


Fujiyama Naoto, Osuki Takahiro, Seki Akira, Hirata Hiroyuki, Ogawa Kazuhiro
Grain growth behavior analysis of low alloy steel using phase-field method: Development of method to predict grain growth behavior at Heat Affected Zone(1)  [in Japanese]
Prep.Nat.Meet.JWS 2012s(0), 118-119, 2012


Suggestion of grain boundary mobility incorporating pinning effect by MICRESS:The prediction of grain growth behavior at Heat Affected Zone (2)  [in Japanese]
Prep.Nat.Meet.JWS 2012f(0), 156-157, 2012






Jenny Rudnizki:  “Through-process model for the microstructure of dual-phase steel”,

PHD thesis IEHK RWTH Aachen University (2011)


Alexandre Viardin, Laszlo Sturz, Gerhard Zimmermann and Markus Apel

Phase-field modeling of the columnar-to-equiaxed transition in neopentylglycol-camphor alloy solidification

Journal of Physics: Conference Series 327 (2011) 012004


Matthias Militzer and Hamid Azizi-Alizamini

Phase Field Modelling of Austenite Formation in Low Carbon Steels

Solid State Phenomena Vols. 172-174 (2011) pp 1050-1059


Ingo Steinbach, Mathis Plapp: Pearlite revisited

Continuum Mech.Thermodyn.    DOI 10.1007/s00161-011-0204-y


W.W. Song, U. Prahl, W. Bleck, K. Mukherjee:

Phase-Field Simulations of bainitic phase transformation in100CR6

TMS 2011 140th Annual Meeting and Exhibition:  Materials Fabrication, Properties, Characterization, and Modeling

(Wiley 2011) ISBN 978-1-11802-946-6  pages 417-425


Lijun Zhang, Ingo Steinbach and Yong Du

Phase-Field Simulations of Diffusion Couples in the Ni-Al system

Int. J. Mat. Res 102 4 (2011)371


J. Rudnizki, B. Böttger, U. Prahl, and W. Bleck

Phase-Field Modeling of Austenite Formation from a Ferrite plus Pearlite Microstructure during Annealing of Cold-Rolled Dual-Phase Steel



G.J. Schmitz, S. Benke, G. Laschet, M. Apel, U. Prahl, P. Fayek, S. Konovalov, J. Rudnizki, H. Quade,

S. Freyberger, T. Henke, M. Bambach, E.A. Rossiter, U. Jansen, U. Eppelt

Towards Integrative Computational Materials Engineering of Steel Components

Production Engineering & Research (2011) DOI: 10.1007/s11740-011-0322-1


B.Nestler, A. Choudhury

Phase-field modeling of multi-component systems

Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science Volume 15, Issue 3, June 2011, Pages 93–105


R. Altenfeld, M. Apel, D. an Mey, B. Böttger, S. Benke, C. Bischof

Parallelizing Computational Microstructure Simulations for Metallic Materials with OpenMP

accepted for publication in: Springer  Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) series.


G. J. Schmitz, B. Böttger, J. Eiken, M. Apel , A. Viardin, A. Carré and G. Laschet.

Phase-field based simulation of microstructure evolution in technical alloy grades

Int J Adv Eng Sci Appl Math 2 4 (2012) 126  DOI 10.1007/s12572-011-0026-y (Springer 2012)


M.G. Mecozzi, J. Eiken, M. Apel, J. Sietsma

Quantitative comparison of the phase-transformation kinetics

in a sharp-interface and a phase-field model

Computational Materials Science 50(2011)1846




M. Militzer

Phase field modeling of microstructure evolution in steels

Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (2010) doi: 10.1016/j.cossms.2010.10.001


Yuko Nomura, Satoshi Minamoto and Sukeharu Nomoto

Simulations of Solidification in Sn–3Ag–0.5Cu Alloys by the Multi-phase-field Method

ISIJ International, Vol. 50 (2010), No. 12, pp. 1920–1924


S. Minamoto, S. Nomoto, A. Hamaya, T. Horiuchi and S. Miura

Microstructure Simulation for Solidification of Magnesium–Zinc–Yttrium Alloy by Multi-phase-field Method

Coupled with CALPHAD Database

ISIJ International, Vol. 50 (2010), No. 12, pp. 1914–1919



Phase-Field Simulations of Dendritic Orientation Selection in Mg-Alloys with Hexagonal Anisotropy

Materials Science Forum 649 (2010) pp 199-204


K. Mukherjee, U. Prahl, W. Bleck, U. Reisgen, M. Schleser, A. Abdurakhmanov

Characterization and modelling techniques for gas metal arc welding of DP 600 sheet steels

Mat.-wiss. u. Werkstofftech. 47 11 (2010)972


D. Senk, S. Stratemeier, B. Böttger, K. Göhler and I. Steinbach

Modeling of Hot Ductility During Solidification of Steel Grades in Continuous Casting – Part I

Advanced Engineering Materials 12 4(2010) 94


B.Böttger, S. Stratemeier, E. Subasic, K. Göhler, I. Steinbach and D. Senk

Modeling of Hot Ductility During Solidification of Steel Grades in Continuous Casting – Part II

Advanced Engineering Materials 12 4(2010) 101


A. Carré,  B. Böttger,  M. Apel

Phase-field modelling of gas porosity formation during the solidification of aluminium

International Journal of Materials Research 2010/04, Page 510-514


G. Laschet und M. Apel:

Thermo-elastic homogenization of 3-D steel microstructure simulated by the phase field method

Steel Res. Int., vol. 81, n°8 (2010) 637-643


Hamid Azizi-Alizamini,  Matthias Militzer

Phase field modelling of austenite formation from ultrafine ferrite–carbide aggregates in Fe–C

International Journal of Materials Research 2010/04, Page 534-541


Morteza Toloui, Matthias Militzer

Phase field simulation of austenite grain growth in the HAZ of microalloyed linepipe steel

International Journal of Materials Research 2010/04, Page 542-548


Philippe Schaffnit,  Charles Stallybrass, Joachim Konrad,  Axel Kulgemeyer,  Heike Meuser

Dual-scale phase-field simulation of grain growth upon reheating of a microalloyed line pipe steel

International Journal of Materials Research 2010/04, Page 549-554



Phase-field simulation of microstructure formation in technical magnesium alloys

International Journal of Materials Research 2010/04, Page 503-509


M.Bünck, N.Warnken, A.Bührig-Polaczek
Microstructure evolution of rheo-cast A356 aluminium alloy in consideration of different cooling conditions by means of the cooling channel process

Journal of Materials Processing Technology 210 4  (2010) 624


S Fukumoto, Y. Oikawa, S.Tsuge and S. Nomoto

Prediction of Sigma Phase Formation in Fe–Cr–Ni–Mo–N Alloys

ISIJ International, Vol. 50 (2010), No. 3, pp. 445–449



B. Böttger, A. Carré, G.J. Schmitz, J. Eiken and M. Apel
Simulation of the Microstructure Formation in Technical Aluminum Alloys using the Multi-Phase-Field Method

Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals 62 4-5 (2009) 299.


P.K. Galenko, S. Reutzel, D.M. Herlach, S.G. Fries, I. Steinbach , M. Apel

Dendritic solidification in undercooled Ni–Zr–Al melts: Experiments and modeling

Acta Materialia 57 (2009) 6166–6175


N. Warnken, D. Ma, A. Drevermann, R.C. Reed, S.G. Fries and I. Steinbach

Phase-field modelling of as-cast microstructure evolution in nickel-based superalloys

Acta Materialia (2009) 5862


B. Böttger, M. Apel, J. Eiken, P. Schaffnit , G.J. Schmitz and I. Steinbach:

Phase-Field Simulation of equiaxed solidification: A homoenthalpic approach to the micro-macro problem
Modelling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes MCWASP - XII, Vancouver 2009  Pages: 119-127   

J. Eiken, M. Apel, V. T. Witusiewicz, J. Zollinger and U. Hecht

Interplay between α(Ti) nucleation and growth during peritectic solidification investigated by phase-field simulations

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 (2009) 464104  doi:10.1088/0953-8984/21/46/464104



Dendritic growth texture evolution in Mg-based alloys investigated by phase-field simulation

International Journal of Cast Metals Research 22, 1-4 (2009) 86-89(4)


P. Schaffnit, C. Stallybrass, S. Bez, A. Schneider, J. Konrad, A. Liessem

Quantitative phase–field simulation of the austenite grain growth

between 900°C and 1400°C of a micro-alloyed line-pipe steel

9th International Seminar Numerical Analysis of Weldability  Graz-Seggau 2009 (pre-print)


I. Steinbach

Pattern formation in constrained dendritic growth with solutal buoyancy

Acta Materialia 57 (2009) 2640–2645



Effect of melt flow on dendritic growth in AlSi7-based alloys during directional solidification

International Journal of Cast Metals Research 22, 1-4 (2009) 335-338(4)


S. Fukumoto  and S. Nomoto

Microstructure Simulation for Solidification of Stainless Steel by Multi-Phase-Field Model

J. Japan Inst. Metals, Vol. 73, No. 7 (2009), pp. 502-508 (in Japanese)


S. Nomoto, S. Minamoto and K. Nakajima

Numerical Simulation for Grain Refinement of Aluminum Alloy by Multi-phase-field Model Coupled with CALPHAD

ISIJ International 49 7 (2009) 1019



M. Apel, B. Böttger, J. Rudnizki, P. Schaffnit and I. Steinbach

Grain Growth Simulations including particle pinning using the Multi-Phasefield Concept

ISIJ International 49 7 (2009) 1024


B. Böttger, J. Eiken, M.Apel,

Phase-field simulation of microstructure formation in technical castings – A self-consistent homoenthalpic approach to the micro–macro problem

J. Comput. Phys. 228 (2009), 6784-6795


I. Steinbach

Phase-field models in Materials Science –Topical Review

Modelling Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 17 (2009)073001

S.G.Fries, B.Böttger, J.Eiken,  I.Steinbach
Upgrading CALPHAD to microstructure simulation: the phase-field method
Int.J.Mat.Res 100(2009)2

M.Apel, S.Benke,I.Steinbach
Virtual Dilatometer Curves and effective Young's modulus of a 3D multiphase structure calulated by the phase-field method
Computational Materials Science 45 (2009) 589

S.S.Khan, N.Hort, J.Eiken, I.Steinbach and S.Schmauder
Numerical Determination of Heat Distribution and Castability Simulations of as Cast Mg-Al Alloys
Advanced Engineering Materials 11 3 (2009) 162



I. Steinbach

Effect of interface anisotropy on spacing selection in constrained dendrite growth

Acta Materialia 56(2008)4965-4971


Y. Takahama and J.Sietsma

Mobility Analysis of the Austenite to Ferrite Transformation in Nb Microalloyed Steel by Phase Field Modelling

ISIJ International, Vol. 48 (2008), No. 4, pp. 512–517


N.Warnken, A.Drevermann, D.Ma, S.G.Fries, I.Steinbach

Development of a simulation approach to microstructure evolution during solidification and homogenization using the phase-field method

Superalloys 2008, Eds: R.C.Reed et al. TMS Warrendale, 2008



A Multi-phase-field model including inelastic deformation for solid
state transformations DOI: 10.1002/pamm.20081040

PAMM, Volume 8 Issue 1 (December 2008), pp 10407-10408


B. Böttger, V.T. Witusiewicz, M. Apel, A. Drevermann, U. Hecht, S. Rex

Stationary and Instationary Morphology Formation During Directional Solidification of Ternary Eutectic Alloys.

Dieter M. Herlach (Hg.): Phase Transformations in Multicomponent Melts. Weinheim Wiley-VCH 2008, pp. 387-406


A.Sommerfeld, B.Böttger, B.Tonn
Graphite nucleation in cast iron melts based on solidification experiments and microstructure simulation
Journal of Materials Science and Technology 24 3 (2008) 321-324

B.Böttger, M.Apel, J.Eiken, P.Schaffnit, I.Steinbach
Phase-field simulation of solidification and solid-state transformations in multicomponent steels
steel research international 79 8 (2008) 608

T. Kitashima
Coupling of the phase-field and CALPHAD methods for predicting multicomponent, solid-state phase transformations (review article

Philosophical Magazine Vol. 88, No. 11, 11 April 2008, 1615–1637


J.Eiken, B.Böttger, I.Steinbach
Simulation of Microstructure Evolution during solidification of Magnesium-Based Alloys
Trans. Indian Inst. Met.
Vol.60, Nos. 2-3, April-June 2007, pp. 179-184

P.Schaffnit, M.Apel, I.Steinbach
Simulation of ideal grain growth using the multi-phase-field model
Materials Science Forum 558-559 (2007)1177

S.Amancherla,  S.KarB.Bewlay, Y.Ying, A.Chang
Thermodynamic and Microstructural Modelling of Nb-Si Based Alloys
Journal of Phase Equilibria and Diffusion 28 1 (2007) 2

I.Steinbach,  B.BöttgerJ.Eiken, N.Warnken, S.G.Fries
CALPHAD and Phase-Field Modeling: A Succesful Liaison
Journal of Phase Equilibria and Diffusion 28 1 (2007) 101

I.Steinbach, M.Apel
Phase-field simulation of rapid crystallization of silicon on substrate
Materials Science & Engineering A 449-451 (2007) 95

I.Steinbach, M.Apel
The influence of lattice strain on pearlite formation in Fe–C
Acta Materialia 55 (2007) 4817

R.G.Thiessen, J.Sietsma, T.A.Palmer, J.W.Elmer, I.M.Richardson
Phase-field modelling and synchrotron validation of phase transformations in martensitic dual-phase steel Acta Materialia 55 (2007) 601-614


M. Militzer, M.G. Mecozzi, J. SietsmaS.van der Zwaag
Three-dimensional phase field modelling of the austenite-to-ferrite transformation
Acta Materialia 54 (15) (2006) 3961-3972 

M.G. Mecozzi, J. SietsmaS.van der Zwaag
Analysis of the gamma-alpha transformation in a Nb microalloyed C-Mn steel by phase-field modelling
Acta Materialia 54 (2006) 1431 

J.Sietsma, M.G.Mecozzi, S.M.C. van Bohemen, S.van der Zwaag
Evolution of the mixed-mode character of solid-state transformations in metals involving solute partitioninig
Int. J. Mat.
Res (formerly Z. Metallkd.) 97 (2006) 4

R.G.Thiessen, I.M.Richardson
A Physically Based Model for Microstructure Development in a Macroscopic Heat-Affected Zone: Grain Growth and Recrystallization
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B 37B (2006)655

R.Herzog, N.Warnken, I.Steinbach, B.Hallstedt, C.Walter,J.Müller, D.Hajas, E.Münstermann, J.M.Schneider, R.Nickel, D.Parkot, K.Bobzin, E.Lugscheider, P.Bednarz, O.Trunova, L.Singheiser
Integrated Approach for the Development of Advanced, Coated Gas Turbine Blades
Advanced Engineering Materials 8 6 (2006) 535

G.C. Pariser
Modeling the Austenite to Ferrite Phase Transformation for Steel Development
Ph.D. Thesis , Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy, RWTH Aachen (2006) , Shaker, Aachen ISBN 3-8322-5014-X

K.Nakajima, M.Apel, I. Steinbach
The role of carbon diffusion in ferrite on the kinetics of cooperative growth of pearlite: A Multi-Phase-Field study
Acta Materialia 54 (2006) 3665-3672

R.G.Thiessen, I.M Richardson,  J.Sietsma
Physically based modelling of phase transformations during welding of low-carbon steel
Materials Science and Engineering A 427 (2006) 223

J. Eiken , B.Böttger, I.Steinbach
Multiphase-Field approach for multicomponent alloys with extrapolation scheme for numerical application
Phys. Rev. E 73   066122  (2006)

I.Steinbach, M.Apel
Multi Phase Field Model for Solid State Transformation with Elastic Strain
Physica D 217 (2006) 153-160

Advanced Engineering Materials April 4 (2006)  (journalcoverpage)

B. Böttger, J.Eiken, M.Ohno, G.Klaus, M.Fehlbier,  R.Schmid-Fetzer, I.Steinbach and A. Bührig-Polaczek:

Controlling Microstructure in Magnesium alloys: A combined thermodynamic, experimental and simulation approach,

Advanced Engineering Materials 8 4 (2006) 241               

B. Böttger, J.
Eiken, I. Steinbach
Phase field simulation of equiaxed solidification in technical alloys
Acta Materialia 54 10 (2006) 2697

H.J. Diepers, I  Steinbach
Interaction of interdendritic convection and dendritic primary spacing:
Phase-field simulation and analytical modeling


M.G. Mecozzi, J.Sietsma, S.van der Zwaag, M.Apel, P.Schaffnit, I.Steinbach
Analysis of the gamma-alpha Transformation in C-Mn steel by phase-field modelling
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A  36A 9 (2005) 2327 (first page)

I. Steinbach, HJ Diepers,  C Beckermann
Transient growth and interaction of equiaxed dendrites
Journal of Crystal Growth  275 3-4( 2005) 624

N. Warnken, D. Ma , M. Mathes, I. Steinbach
Investigation of eutectic island formation in SX superalloys




J. C. Ramirez, C. Beckermann, A. Karma and H.-J. Diepers
Phase-field modeling of binary alloy solidification with coupled heat and solute diffusion
PHYSICAL REVIEW E 69, 051607 (2004)

Phase-field modeling of 55wt% Al -Zn-Si alloy system
Proceedings Galvatech 2004 page 961ff

E. de Bruycker, B.C. De Cooman, M. De Meyer
Experimental Study and Microstructure Simulations of Zn-Al-Mg coatings
Proceedings Galvatech 2004 page 723ff   


J. Rösler, M. Götting, D. Del Genovese, B. Böttger, R. Kopp, M. Wolske, F. Schubert, H. J. Penkalla, T. Seliga, A. Thoma, A. Scholz, C. Berger: 

Wrought Ni-Base Superalloys for Steam Turbine Applications beyond 700 °C.

Advanced Engineering Materials 2003 


A. Burtseva, M. Apel, R. Ishihara, C.I.M. Beenakker

Phase-field modelling of excimer laser lateral crystallization of silicon thin films

Thin Solid Films 427 (2003) 309–313

M.G.Mecozzi, J.Sietsma and S. van der Zwaag, M.Apel, P.Schaffnit,I.Steinbach
Anaylysis of the gamma-alpha transition in C-Mn steels by dilatometry, Laser confocal scanning microscopy and phase-field modelling
Proceedings MS&T 2003 pages 353 ff

G.Pariser, P.Schaffnit, I.Steinbach and W.Bleck
Simulation of proeutectoid ferrite precipitation during technical heattreatment
Proceedings MS&T 2003 pages 279  ff


M. Apel, B. Böttger, H.-J. Diepers, I. Steinbach: 2D and 3D phase-field simulations of  lamellar and fibrous eutectic growth.
Journal of Crystal Growth 237-239 (2002) p.154-158.

M. Apel, D. Franke, I. Steinbach: Simulation of the crystallisation of silicon ribbons on  substrate. Crystalline Silicon for Solar Cells.
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 72 (2002), p. 201-208.

H.-J. Diepers, D. Ma, I. Steinbach:
History effects during the selection of primary dendrite spacing. Comparison of phase-field simulations with experimental observations.

Journal of Crystal Growth 237-239 (2002), p. 149-153.



G. Pariser, P. Schaffnit, I. Steinbach, W. Bleck:

Simulation of the gamma-alpha-transformation using the phase-field method.

Steel Research 72 (2001) 9, p. 354-360.


B. Böttger, U. Grafe, D. Ma, S. G. Fries:

Simulation of Microsegregation and  Microstructural Evolution in Directionally Solidified Superalloys.

Materials Science and Technology 16 (2000) Nov/Dec, S. 1425-1428.


U. Grafe, B. Böttger, J. Tiaden, S. G. Fries:

Coupling of Multicomponent Thermodynamic Databases to a Phase Field Model:

Application to Solidification and Solid State Transformations of Superalloys.

Scripta Materialia 42 (2000) 12, S. 1179-1186.


U. Grafe, B. Böttger, T. Tiaden, S. G. Fries:

Simulations of the Initial Transient during Directional Solidification of Multicomponent Alloys Using the Phase Field Method.

Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering 8 (2000) 6, S. 871-879.


C. Beckermann, H.-J. Diepers, I. Steinbach, A. Karma, X. Tong:

Modeling Melt  Convection in Phase-Field Simulations of Solidification.

Journal of Computational  Physics 154 (1999) p. 468-496.


H.-J. Diepers, C. Beckermann, I. Steinbach:

Simulation of convection and ripening in a  binary alloy mush using the phase-field-method.

Acta materialia 47 (1999) 13, p. 3663-3678.


D. Ma, U. Grafe:

Microsegregation in directionally solidified dendritic-cellular structure of superalloy CMSX-4.

Materials Science and Engineering A270 (1999) p. 339-342.


I. Steinbach, F. Pezzolla:

A generalized field method for multiphase transformations  using interface fields.

Physica D 134 (1999), p. 385-393.


I. Steinbach, B. Kauerauf, C. Beckermann, J. Guo, Q. Li:

Three-Dimensional Modeling of Equiaxed Dendritic Growth on a Mesoscopic Scale.

Acta Materialia 47 (1999) 3, p.971-982.


J. Tiaden: Phase field simulations of the peritectic solidification of Fe-C. 

Journal of Crystal Growth 198/199 (1999), pp 1275-1280.


G. J. Schmitz, B. Nestler: Simulation of phase transitions in multiphase systems:  peritectic solidification of (RE)Ba2Cu3O7-x superconductors.

Materials Science and Engineering B53 (1998), p. 23-27.


J. Tiaden, B. Nestler, H.-J. Diepers, I. Steinbach:

The Multiphase-Field Model with an Integrated Concept for Modelling Solute Diffusion.

Physica D (1998)115, p. 73-86.



M. Seeßelberg, J. Tiaden, G. J. Schmitz, I. Steinbach:

Gefügesimulation in mehrphasig  erstarrenden Legierungen.

Metall 51(1997) 9, S.491-493.




G. J. Schmitz, B. Nestler, M. Seeßelberg:

YBCO Melt-Processing Development by Numerical Simulation.
J. Low Temp. Phys. 105(1996), p 1451.


M. Seeßelberg, B. Nestler, R. Prieler, G. J. Schmitz, I. Steinbach:

Ein ortsaufgelöstes Simulationsverfahren der Gefügebildung in erstarrenden Schmelzen.

Metall  50(1996)9   S.588-590.


I. Steinbach, F. Pezzolla, B. Nestler, M. Seeßelberg, R. Prieler, G. J. Schmitz, J. L. L. Rezende:

A phase field concept for multiphase systems.

Physica D 94(1996), p.135-147.